Rittel & Webber on ‘wicked and tame’ problems

Consequences for equity: Differentiation of publics has heightened pluralism, making it difficult to satisfy all, or even most of them in policy formulation. The problem lies at the nexus of goal-formulation, problem-definition, and equity issues (p 156).

Revolts: 1960s RANDian systems theory approaches led to revolts by blacks, students, anti-war demonstrators, conservationists – movements all opposing ‘underlying systemic processes’ [is this Marcuse’s One Dimensional Man being challenged?] (p 157).

‘Makeability’: the idea that the future can be shaped by enough planning intellect (p 158).

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